Hello. I laid out the path at the dacha from paving slabs 30x30, everything seemed to be smart, and removed the soil, and a pillow of sand, and put it on the dry mixture, and sprinkled the dry mixture between the tiles, and spilled everything with water and everything was fine, but a dry one pops up between the tiles mixture and all! I started with cement, and with the mixture again, it pops up! And the tile stuck, does not walk, can I try tile glue? Or what kind of grout? HELP.
Andrey Khromov, Troitsky a / o, Pervomaiskoe s / n, village Popovka.
Hello Victor from Popovka!
Judging by your description, you seem to have done everything right.
That is, when laying paving slabs, the following sequence is carried out. The soil is removed by 10-15 centimeters, so as to remove the root system of the grass. The layout of the future garden path is being made, that is, the soil surface is leveled. Then a layer of sand from a thickness of 5 centimeters and above is poured and leveled. Sometimes sand is shed with water from a watering can, so that it is compacted as much as possible.
After which the paving slabs are laid or immediately on the sand. Or a dry mixture of cement and sand is poured with an even layer, after which the tile is laid. The gaps between the tiles are made minimal in size and are also filled either with sand or the indicated dry mix. Broom sweep the entire surface of the tiles. Water can be watered only from a hose using a shower grate with holes as small as possible. In order not to get a stream of water, but the smallest dew-fog, then the seams will not be washed out and sand or a sand-cement mixture will be compacted.
/ Not always, but it happens that a garden curb stone is installed on the sides of paving slabs, it is lighter than a road stone and the dimensions of 0.5 meters are optimal for even one person to work with it. /
Seams are not recommended to be filled with pure cement, because when connected to water under such conditions, it will simply break and all joints will be cracked.
What is the reason for your turmoil, one can only guess. The first thing that comes to mind is that something is wrong with the mixture. Usually, at least our coven staff, try not to use the dry mixture. And this is done for the reason that its producers put about 10 parts of sand there on one part of cement. The result is an extremely poor quality solution.
We usually prepare the dry mix ourselves. Why do we take from one to three parts of sifted sand of medium or large fraction for one part of cement of the M300 or M400 brand. Sand quarry or river, although here you can run into not clean sand, but with impurities of the earth or clay. And then the quality of the mixture will be disgusting quality. The cost of the prepared mixture (and taking into account its quality) is much lower than the purchase price.
The use of any grouts and adhesives in garden paths is not applicable. Get gold.
So, as an option - with the help of a low-powered puncher with a chisel-scalpel, go through all the seams, remove them, wash them and make a home-made dry mixture to spill the seams using all the steps using the above technology.
Maybe you and some completely unknown factors from the realm of miracles lead to the same.
/ As a similar incident, one can cite an example told by my friends when the border guards took some wire that they didn’t know where they got from by mistake and made an air line with the installation of lamps on each post. After they cut off the electricity, we observed a strange picture - the first lamp shone normally, the second worse, the third flooded, etc. up to the fact that the last lamp did not shine at all. As a result, it turned out that instead of the usual wire, a thermocouple was used, either chromel-copel, or chromel-alumel. The resistivity with each meter increased and as a result it turned out what happened. /
I can’t add another.
Other questions on the theme of garden and pavement paths:
Why do you need to close up the seams?
The pavement is laid on a specially prepared base of cement-sand mixture, and in the case of high weight loads - on reinforced concrete. This technology provides paving with the necessary stability and durability. However, if you do not perform the necessary final work, such a coating may be destroyed due to external factors.
The order of work.
Water entering the surface during rain and when snow melts has the most negative effect.. Monolithic cement-sand or concrete base does not allow this moisture to freely go into the ground. As a result, in the cold season, at a negative temperature, the water accumulated in the inter-tile seams freezes, turning into ice, expands and begins to destroy the paving slabs.
Another negative factor is weed seeds. Gradually, soil accumulates in the seams, and the seeds of plants that have got into it begin to germinate. The root system, exerting strong pressure on the tile, contributes to its displacement from the spot and possible destruction.
Extremely negative impact on the tile coating has trash falling into the seams. By decaying, it can become chemically active and begin to destroy the material. In addition, the accumulated garbage attracts insects and as a result of their vital activity, irreparable harm is inflicted on the tiled coating.
Such troubles can be avoided if grouting of paving slabs is done in a timely manner. How to do this correctly will be described below.
Necessary materials and tools
For high-quality sealing of joints between tiles, you will need the following materials:
- cement grade PTs400 or PTs500,
- river or washed sand,
- pure water.
It is not recommended to use quarry sand for sealing joints of paving slabs, since the clay and other contaminants contained in it do not allow ensuring the necessary quality of the cement-sand mixture.
During operation, you will need the following tool:
- rubber spatula
- container for mixing the mixture or concrete mixer,
- sieve for sifting sand,
- broom or soft brush,
- watering hose.
After acquiring materials and preparing the tool, you can begin work.
Performance of work
There are two technologies for filling tile joints: filling with a dry cement-sand mixture or pouring cement mortar. However, in any case, work begins with preparation.
Pre-treatment of pavers with water pressure from a hose.
If the tile was laid on a concrete base, the joints can be repaired only after it has completely set, which occurs no earlier than 72 hours later. If a cement-sand base was used, then you can proceed with the embedding immediately after laying the paving slabs. Work should be done in dry weather and in the complete absence of moisture inside the seams. You can check for moisture using a dry cloth (stick it between the tiles).
From the surface of the track, it is necessary to sweep away all the debris, and also try to clean the seams well with the help of thin sticks. After cleaning, you need to decide on the technology of sealing.
For concrete, ceramics and other finely porous materials, it is better to use a dry cement-sand mixture, and for dense and smooth materials such as granite and marble, it is better to seal the seams with cement mortar.
Dry cement-sand mixture is prepared in a ratio of 1: 5 using cement PTs400 and 1: 6 at PTs500. Sand must be sieved to obtain a fraction of not more than 0.3 mm. After that, dry sand and cement are poured into a concrete mixer without water and thoroughly mixed.
After preparing the mixture, you need to pour it on the surface and wash it with a broom or brush along the cracks. The operation is performed until they are filled to the top. Next, you need to sweep the remnants of the dry mixture from the paved surface and pour it with water from the irrigation hose.
The filled mixture will get wet and after 3-4 days will set, why it will sag a little. Therefore, the backfill operation after this will need to be repeated.
Sand for the preparation of the solution must also be sieved. The ratio of cement and sand when using cement ПЦ400 1: 3, and for ПЦ500 1: 4. The required amount of water should provide a density corresponding to ordinary sour cream.
The solution can be prepared in a concrete mixer or manually in a tub. After that, it must be poured along the seams and leveled with a rubber spatula. Do not use a metal spatula so as not to damage the tiles. Immediately after grouting, the paved surface should be wiped with a rag to remove any cement slurry. If after 3-4 days the solution will shrink, then the whole procedure must be repeated.
It is much easier to clean the seams from debris and dirt at the preparatory stage of work with compressed air from the compressor or through the narrow nozzle of an old Soviet vacuum cleaner by installing a hose on the exhaust pipe. With the help of a compressor, it will be possible to remove not only debris, but also moisture, in order to dry seams faster.
During the preparation of a dry cement-sand mixture, first fill in half the volume of sand, and then all the necessary cement and only then the residual volume of sand.
This will ensure high-quality mixing and there will be less cement dust in the air. Water in a liquid cement mortar must be added last.
If you use plasticizers or liquid detergent, the plasticity of the cement will increase, and the quality of the joints will be better. In this case, the solution can be made a little thicker, which will provide a quick setting.
The final removal of cement mortar residues is best done a few hours after pouring. When the thin residual layer has set, it will be very easy to remove using a dry rag. However, the bulk of cement residue must be removed immediately.
Garden path: how to fill the seams?
Paving slabs are not only a reliable paving, but also an element of landscape design of a personal plot.
Outwardly, she is very beautiful. But the appearance of the path from paving slabs deteriorates if the laying technology is violated. In this case, individual elements begin to sag, the seams are exposed, grass leaks through them.
To avoid such incidents, pay attention to the quality of the implementation of the main stages of laying a track from pavers:
- Soil preparation
- Pillow construction,
- Installation of a border stone,
- Sealing of paving seams.
Laying paving slabs
Installation of paving slabs is carried out in several stages:
- Removal of a fertile soil layer. Remove chernozem and turf. Move it to another location. From the trench that was formed as a result of these works, remove the roots and seeds of the plants, and then moisten the soil with water and compact.
- If the depth of the ditch turned out to be too large, add a mixture of sand and gravel. Tamp it too.
- During the installation of the underlying pillow, note that the main layer of sprinkling has a thickness of at least 10 cm. For its device, use crushed stone or gravel of small fractions ranging in size from 20 mm to 40 mm. Pour it with water, and then - tamp.
- If you decide to lay the pavers on sand, pour sand on top of the underlying layer, and then - compact it. For concrete substrates, mount the formwork, and then pour cement-sand mortar into the trench in layers.
- Mount the curbs along the edges of the track.
- Now pour back the sand, and pull off the pillow using the board, which is installed on the stones on both sides of the track. This layer can be aligned taking into account the fact that after mounting paving slabs on it, it will rise 5 mm above the curb. After shrinkage occurs, the tile will be flush with the curb.
- The last stage is the repair of joints. It starts the day after the installation of the track cover. If large volumes of work are carried out using a cement mixture, the surface of the pavers is best pre-primed with any suitable composition. Due to this, the tile will not be dirty, there will be no marks on it after laying work.
Sealing of paving slabs
To date, there are three options for termination:
- With the help of sand
- Using a solution,
- Grout grout.
To cover the stone, it is best to use sand filling or grouting. The grouting of the concrete tiles is carried out with a solution, and in the case of ceramic tiles, only sand filling is carried out.
For marble tiles, only cement-sand mortar with any method of its incorporation is used. In the case of paving slabs, all three options are acceptable. However, if the installation is carried out on a concrete base, it is best to fill the joints with a dry cement-sand mixture.
Be sure to sift the sand. It is best that no roots or seeds of herbs and other plants remain in it. The most suitable fraction has a diameter of 0.2 mm.
Fill the inter-tile space with sand in three stages:
- Pour sand onto the surface, and then rub it into the crevices with a stiff brush,
- Pour water, and then wait for the aggregate to shrink,
- Fill the seams with sand again, and then rub it with a brush.
To fill the distance between the tiles with a cement-sand mortar, a trowel or rubber spatula is used. Hammer the seams with the mixture, and then smooth with a spatula. Remove it from the surface of the paving slab immediately, without waiting for the cement to harden. If a cement-sand mixture is used to seal the joints, then after finishing work, pour the surface of the pavers with water. When the mixture shrinks, re-close the cracks.
When the gaps between the tiles on the blind area around the house are filled, the sealing should be done only with concrete mortar. It consists of sand and cement M-400 in a ratio of 3: 1. At the same time, there will be no leaching of the seams, since the blind area is made with a slope for the drainage of water. Cement mortar has another advantage - you can give it any color using tint. Most often this is the decisive factor when choosing this method of sealing joints.
Colored straight lines radically change the look of even an ugly and faded garden path. A well-filled space between the tiles is a guarantee that grass will not grow through the seams and ants or ground beetles will not crawl out. Thanks to this, the coating will remain in its original form for decades!
How to make paths from paving slabs
The basis for high-quality laying of paving slabs (paving stones) is a carefully prepared base.
- First of all, you need to remove the entire fertile soil layer. Sod and chernozem should be removed and transferred to another location. The trench resulting from these works must be thoroughly cleaned of the roots and seeds of plants. Then the soil at the bottom should be spilled with water and rammed.
- In the event that the depth of the ditch turned out to be large, they add a mixture of sand and gravel, which also needs to be tamped. When arranging the underlying pillow, one must take into account that the main layer of the backfill should be 5-10 cm thick. For its arrangement, it is advisable to use gravel or crushed stone of a fine fraction 20/40. It also needs to be spilled and tamped.
- If you decide to lay the paving stones on sand, then sand is poured over the underlying layer and compacted. If the base is concrete, then the formwork is mounted and a cement-sand mortar is poured into the trench layer by layer.
- At the edges of the track installed curbs.
- Then sand is again poured off and the pillow is pulled together with a board mounted on stones on both sides of the track. It is necessary to level this layer taking into account the fact that after installing paving slabs on it, it should rise 5 mm above the curb. After shrinkage, she will be on a par with him.
- Next, the joint is sealed. It can be started the very next day after the installation of the track cover. If large volumes of work are carried out using a cement mixture, it is recommended that the surface of the pavers be pre-primed with any suitable composition. This will prevent the tile from getting dirty and there will be no trace left after such work.
How to close up seams of paving slabs
There are three ways to do this work:
- filled with sand.
- filled with solution.
- rubbed with a solution.
When tile seams are tightly and qualitatively sealed - insects and parasites will not get into them, especially when there is a dog in the yard.
For the coating of natural stone, the most acceptable first and last methods. The seams of concrete tiles are rubbed with mortar, ceramic - they are filled only with sand. For marble tiles, only cement-sand mortar with any method of sealing it is acceptable. For paving slabs any of the options is possible. But if it is laid on a concrete base, it is preferable to fill the seams with a dry cement-sand mixture.
The sand must be sifted, it is extremely undesirable that the roots or seeds of herbs and other plants remain in it. The most suitable fraction is 0.2 mm. Fill the inter-tile space with sand in three steps:
- pour it on the surface of the paving slabs and rub it into the crevices with a stiff brush,
- spill them with water. Give time to shrink the aggregate,
- refill the seam with sand and brush it.
После затирки швов нужно убрать все остатки просыпки и помыть плитку из лейки или шланга с разбрызгивателем.
Для заполнения расстояния между плитками цементно-песчаным раствором используется мастерок или резиновый шпатель. The seams are clogged with a mixture and smoothed with a spatula. It must be removed from the surface of paving slabs immediately, without waiting for the cement to harden. If a dry cement-sand mixture is used to seal the joints, then at the end of the work, the surface of the pavers must be shed with water. After the mixture shrinks, the slots should be repaired.
If the gaps between the tiles on the blind area around the house, on which rainwater falls from the roof, are filled, then the grouting is carried out only with concrete mortar, prepared in a ratio of 3: 1, where 3 parts of sand and 1 part of cement of the M400 brand. In this case, the seams will not be washed out, since the blind area is made with a slope for water drainage. Cement mortar is also good because it can be given any color with the help of tint. This is often a decisive factor in choosing this method of sealing joints of paving slabs.
Colored even lines can change for the better the appearance of the most discreet and dull coating. A well-filled space between the tiles is a guarantee that grass will not grow in the joints and insects will not start. This will keep the coating in its original form for many years.