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Environmental Issues - Water Pollution


Water is one of the most important natural resources, and it is in our power to prevent its pollution. Minor changes in habits, such as using natural cleaners instead of toxic chemicals at home, growing trees and flowers in the garden, can play a huge role. For larger changes, try not to hush up the facts of discharges of dirty effluents from enterprises into local water bodies. Any action can lead to a positive result.

Sources of Water Pollution

There are a lot of reasons for pollution, and the human factor is not always to blame. Natural disasters also harm clean water bodies, upset the ecological balance.

The most common sources of water pollution are:

Industrial, domestic wastewater. Not passed the system of purification from chemical harmful substances, they, getting into the body of water, provoke an environmental disaster.

Acid rain. This is a common phenomenon, although it is rarely talked about. All industrial exhaust gases, car exhausts, once in the atmosphere, return with rain back to the ground, water bodies.

Solid waste, trash. Not only do they pollute the rivers, but even change the course of the current, making it difficult. Possible spills of lakes and rivers.

Organic pollution. Their natural decomposition (the death of plants, animals).

Man-made disasters. Industrial accidents.

Thermal, radiation pollution.

Descent of mudflows, avalanches.

The effect of water pollution on living organisms

Whatever the reason, water pollution does significant harm. When a pollutant enters a living organism, a protective reaction is triggered. Certain toxins are neutralized by immunity, but in many cases it does not cope. Treatment and taking drastic measures are required. Depending on the sources of pollution, scientists determine such indicators of poisoning:

Genotoxicity. Exposure to heavy metals and other dangerous trace elements can alter or damage the structure of DNA. Serious problems are observed in the development of the body, various diseases develop.

Carcinogenicity. Cancer problems are often related to the quality of the water we consume. The danger lies in the possibility of the transformation of cells into cancerous.

Neurotoxicity. Chemical elements can affect the nervous system. Heavy metal pollution of the oceans leads to unforeseen events. Everyone heard about the ejection of whales from the water. The behavior of animals becomes inadequate. In some cases, they even begin to devour those who previously coexisted peacefully with them.

Disturbed energy exchange. Contaminants, acting on mitochondria, lead to the fact that energy in the body simply ceases to be produced. The body ceases to function, and even death occurs.

Reproductive failure. If the death of living organisms is not always possible with contamination of the reservoir, then reproductive abnormalities occur in 100% of cases. It so happens that in order to fix the genetic problem, it is necessary to artificially update the aquatic environment.

Diseases caused by dirty water

Environmental problems, water pollution lead to the spread of the most serious diseases. It is with this liquid that various pathogens and pathogenic organisms can get into the body, killing hundreds of thousands of lives. The most common diseases that dirty water brings are:

reproductive disorders.

Regardless of the causes of water pollution, the prevention will be the use of filtered, bottled water. Some put silver objects in the water, they have a certain disinfecting effect.

Water treatment control

Understanding that environmental problems and water pollution in particular pose a threat to humanity, requirements for the behavior of people and the activities of enterprises are being created at the national and international levels. The regulations for monitoring the operation of cleaning systems have been developed:

Primary or mechanical. The main task is not to miss large objects into the reservoir. On drains, delay gratings, filters are installed. Their timely cleaning is required, otherwise clogged gratings can provoke an accident.

Specialized. A certain type of pollutant is captured. There are, for example, traps for oil spills, fats, flakes, they are precipitated using coagulants.

Chemical. Such a system implies that wastewater will be used in a closed (re) cycle. At the exit, substances are used that return it to its original form. This is technical water.

Tertiary cleaning. Water is treated with powders, special compounds, multi-stage filtered, killing harmful organisms and destroying other substances. It is used for domestic needs of citizens, as well as in the food industry, in agriculture.

Environmental Issues - Radioactive Water Pollution

The main sources that pollute the oceans include the following radioactive factors:

nuclear weapons tests,

radioactive waste discharges,

major accidents (ships with nuclear reactors, Chernobyl nuclear power plant),

burial at the bottom of the oceans, seas of radioactive waste.

Environmental problems and water pollution, including those directly related to contamination with radioactive waste. For example, French and English nuclear plants infected almost the entire North Atlantic. Our country has become the culprit of pollution of the Arctic Ocean. Three nuclear underground reactors, as well as the production of Krasnoyarsk-26, clogged the largest Yenisei river. Obviously, radioactive products have landed in the ocean.

Radionuclide pollution of world waters

The problem of pollution of the oceans is acute. Let us briefly list the most dangerous radionuclides that fall into it: cesium-137, cerium-144, strontium-90, niobium-95, yttrium-91. All of them have high bioaccumulative ability, cross the food chain and are concentrated in marine organisms. This creates a danger to both humans and aquatic organisms.

The waters of the Arctic seas are subject to severe pollution of various sources of radionuclides. People blithely dump hazardous waste into the ocean, thereby turning it into a dead one. Man probably forgot that the ocean is the main wealth of the earth. It has powerful biological and mineral resources. And if we want to survive, it is urgent to take measures to save him.


Rational water consumption, protection from pollution - the main tasks of mankind. Ways to solve environmental problems of water pollution lead to the fact that, first of all, great attention should be paid to discharges of hazardous substances into rivers. On an industrial scale, it is necessary to improve wastewater treatment technologies. In Russia, it is necessary to introduce a law that would increase the collection of fees for discharges. The proceeds should be directed to the development and construction of new environmental technologies. For the smallest emissions, the fee should be reduced, this will serve as a motivation to maintain a healthy environmental situation.

A major role in solving environmental problems is played by the upbringing of the younger generation. From an early age it is necessary to accustom children to respect, love of nature. To inspire them that the Earth is our big house, for the order in which every person is responsible. It is necessary to protect water, do not pour it thoughtlessly, try to prevent foreign objects and harmful substances from entering the sewer.


In conclusion, I want to say that the environmental problems of Russia and water pollution concern, perhaps, everyone. The thoughtless waste of water resources, littering of rivers with various garbage has led to the fact that in nature there are very few clean, safe corners. Environmentalists have become much more vigilant, multiple measures are being taken to restore order in the environment. If each of us thinks about the consequences of our barbarian, consumer relations, the situation can be corrected. Only together humanity will be able to save the reservoirs, the oceans and, possibly, the lives of future generations.

Natural sources of water pollution

The following factors cause natural pollution of the hydrosphere:

  • volcanic activity
  • leaching of coastal soil,
  • the allocation of waste products of organisms,
  • the remains of dead plants and animals.
Volcano eruption in hawaii

Nature has determined the ways to solve the problem for herself, without outside help. There are natural water purification mechanisms that have been operating smoothly for millennia.

It is known that there is a water cycle. Moisture evaporates from the surface of water bodies and enters the atmosphere. In the process of evaporation, water is purified, which then falls into the soil in the form of precipitation, forming underground water. A considerable part of them again falls into rivers, lakes, seas and oceans. Part of the precipitation falls into water bodies immediately, bypassing the intermediate stages.

As a result of such a cycle, water returns in purified form, therefore, the environmental problem of water pollution is solved by itself.

Human water pollution

We can say that a person pollutes water more than all other living organisms combined. The effects of water pollution adversely affect the entire environment. The harm daily caused by humans to the aquatic environment is comparable only to a global catastrophe. That is why it is impossible to pollute the hydrosphere, and solving the problem of pollution of the aquatic environment is a paramount task.

The consequences of water pollution are such that now almost all of the water present in one form or another on the planet cannot be called clean. Human water pollution is divided into three categories:

  1. industrial
  2. agricultural
  3. household.
Industrial pollution of water

Hydrosphere pollution is growing steadily. True, there has recently been a tendency to reduce it.

Human water pollution can be primary or secondary. At primary, harmful substances have a direct negative effect on the human body, flora or fauna. Secondary pollution of water bodies is considered that is not directly related to the harmful substance that has fallen into the hydrosphere. Water pollutants cause the extinction of organisms and cause an increase in the number of remains of animals or plants, which are also sources of water pollution.

Water pollution kills fish

Types of pollution

There are five main types of hydrosphere pollution:

  1. chemical
  2. biological
  3. mechanical
  4. radioactive
  5. thermal.
Discharges of pollutants in wastewater

What is dangerous hydrosphere pollution for living organisms

Water pollution and its consequences pose a serious threat to the health and life of the organisms that inhabit our planet. The following types of exposure exist:

  • neurotoxic
  • carcinogenic
  • genotoxic
  • failure of reproductive function,
  • violation of energy exchange.

Neurotoxic effects

Heavy metal poisoning of the nervous system can harm the nervous system of humans and animals and cause mental disorders. They can cause inappropriate behavior. Such pollution of water bodies can cause unjustified aggression or suicide of its inhabitants. For example, there are many cases when, for some reason, whales were thrown ashore.

About 200 black grin dolphins thrown on land near Cape Farwell in the north of South Island of New Zealand

Energy Exchange Disorders

Some water pollutants have the ability to inhibit the mitochondria of body cells, which leads to a loss of ability to generate energy. The consequences of water pollution can be such that many of the life processes of the inhabitants of water bodies slow down or stop, even fatal.

What diseases threaten drinking water pollution

Contaminated water may contain pathogens that cause the most dangerous diseases. To understand what the danger of pollution of water bodies is and what they can lead to, we briefly list some of these diseases:

  • cholera,
  • typhoid
  • oncology,
  • congenital pathologies,
  • mucous membrane burn,
  • amoebiasis
  • schistosomiasis,
  • enterovirus infection
  • gastritis
  • psychical deviations,
  • giardiasis.
Haiti's cholera epidemic

The danger of this situation began to be realized not only by specialists, but also by ordinary residents. This is evidenced by the increasing demand for purified bottled and bottled water around the world. People buy such water in order to guarantee the avoidance of dangerous pathogens entering the body.

Water purification

The main culprit for chemical water pollution is production activities. Although water is most actively polluted by industrial enterprises, which actively dump harmful substances into the surrounding water bodies. It may contain the entire periodic table. In addition to the release of chemical elements, thermal and radiation pollution occurs. Catastrophically little attention is paid to the problem of sewage safety. All over the world, you can count on the fingers of production that completely clean their effluents, making them environmentally friendly.

The discharge of a number of pollutants in the wastewater was often carried out without an approved permit for the discharge of pollutants into the environment

This is not due to the negligence of management, but because of the extreme complexity of the cleaning technology. This is why water bodies cannot be polluted. It’s easier to prevent pollution than to organize cleaning.

The treatment facilities partially help to solve the pollution problem. Regardless of the cause of pollution, the following types of water treatment are available:

  1. Mechanical This is the simplest technology, it was on its basis that the first treatment facilities were created. It consists in the fact that grates and filters are installed in the path of the water flow, which trap large particles of debris. Such devices need periodic cleaning. Mechanical treatment facilities
  2. Specialized. This variety helps to purify water from certain types of pollutants. Coagulants are introduced into the contaminated medium, causing adhesion of foreign particles and their release in the form of flakes. Thus, oil and oil stains are usually disposed of.
  3. Chemical. During chemical cleaning, harmful impurities react with a special reagent, after which the chemical composition of the water returns to a state close to the original.
  4. Tertiary. This is a comprehensive method to achieve the best results. Water is treated with special compounds that allow it to be used even in everyday life and the food industry.

In general, ways to solve the problem exist.

The problem of water pollution and its solution at the state and global level

World statistics indicate a rapid increase in water consumption. The main reasons for this are the rapid development of production and the growth of the world’s population.

For example, in the USA, daily water consumption is 3,600 billion tons. Back in 1900, 160 billion liters a day were enough for Americans. Now the country is facing the need to treat and reuse water resources.

Western Europe has already stepped over this threshold. For example, water taken from the Rhine is reused up to 30 times.

Significantly reduce water consumption is already impossible, because for this it will be necessary to reduce production and abandon many of the benefits of civilization. Pollution factors also influence, because the volume of water suitable for consumption is reduced. Therefore, more attention should be paid to maintaining clean water.

The problem is common to all mankind, because the movement of water masses does not know state borders. If one country does not take care of the purity of water resources, why the World Ocean is polluted, the ecology of our planet suffers from this.

Oceans pollution by plastic waste. Plastic waste sailed from densely populated areas of the continental coast as a result of discharge

The state of water in Russia excites the public no less than throughout the world. And here our country has no disagreements with the rest of the world community. After all, water resources can only be saved by joint efforts.