Baseball is one of the most difficult and obscure sports for us. Throughout its history, it has gained distribution only in the United States and Japan, and in 2005 it was even excluded from Olympic sports. Therefore, most of the information we can get only from American films.
This is actually a simple game that even children play. The main thing is to remember some basic rules and it will become extremely clear to you what is happening on the field.
Field and placement of players
A baseball field is a square of approximately one hectare. Below is a diagram of the field with all the key points. Note that each player has his own clear place and moves according to the established rules.
- 1 - internal field
- 2 - external field,
- 3 - a special sand slide for feeding,
- 4 - "house"
- 5 - there is a “better” bouncing the ball,
- 6 - here is the goalkeeper "catcher",
- 7 - “bases” - 3, from the “catcher” are considered from right to left,
- 8 - "infilders", 4 players are between the bases in defense,
- 9 - “outfielders”, 3 players who are on the external field and do not participate in the race for the runner (they only pass the balls).
The game involves 9 people of each team.
The game consists of rounds - “innings”, during which teams gain points. At the end of the game, whoever has more of them has won that team. The game can end only with the victory of one of the teams. There are 9 "innings" in the game, but if the opponents have the same number of points, an additional round is assigned and so on until the winner is identified.
The main goal of the teams during the “inning” is to take as many points as possible, while not letting them get the opponent. Players who play the attack receive 1 point for each player’s run through all the bases in the “house”, and defense players receive 1 point for 3 “strike” when the batter misses the ball. If the batter managed to knock the ball into the game, then it is precisely for occupying the “bases” that the main struggle of all players in the field is played. The attacking team is trying by all means to lead all its players through the "base" into the "house", and the defending team prevents this.
The game consists of 9 "innings", which in turn are divided into 2 parts:
- guests play in the attack - “top”,
- the hosts are in the attack - “lower."
First, one team attacks, and the second defends, then they switch places. According to the rules, the guests are the first to attack, thus leaving the hosts the last bottom “inning” and the opportunity to turn the tide of the game. It is worth noting that there are no draws in baseball and the game is played until one of the teams wins.
When the server throws the ball, the batter tries to hit it as far as possible (or misses the shot). If the ball is hit, he seeks to run around all the bases in turn and, having made a circle, return back “home”. So the player will earn a point. It is very rare to immediately run around all bases, so the player first occupies a nearby base and with each hit ball runs to the next, and so on to the "house". The base can be occupied if it is free, otherwise the player will have to skip it and run to take the next one.
You can run and “steal” the base until the ball is delivered to the player of opponents at this base. It is not easy to do this, since 4 defense players are trying to “deceive” the runner and stop progress on the bases. Any of the defenders between the bases can take off, but only when he has a ball in his hand. They can catch the ball on their own in the field of beating or from 3 “outfielders” from the external field.
When the runner gets to the house, he earns a point, but if the opponent fails, he leaves. When the defending team can catch 3 players, the teams change.
The ball is the most important and spectacular moments in the whole game. In fact, baseball is a confrontation between the server and the batter. The ball is played between three main players:
- the attacking player is the batter,
- defense player - the serving pitcher,
- defense player - goalkeeper catching a catcher ball.
The player submits the ball to the hit zone in such a way that it is most difficult for the batter to hit it, while the “catcher” must catch the ball. A “catcher” sits behind the batsman and catches the ball when the batsman misses (misses) the ball. At the same time, the “Batter” is obliged to repel only those balls that are served in the “strike zone”, and the rest may be missed. For this, the submitter is awarded penalty "bols."
What is a strike zone
The strike zone is the space in front of the player above the “house” limited by the middle of the player’s chest and his knee.
If the ball moves clearly into the “strike” zone, and the batter misses or misses a shot, then a penalty point - “strike” is counted towards him. Also, the “strike" is counted if the ball passed the zone, but the batter made an attempt to hit and missed. When a player gains 3 “strike” he flies out, and they give a point to the defense team.
However, if the ball flies past the “strike zone”, you don’t need to beat it and you should never transfer the bat through the “house”, otherwise the judges will count it “strike”. If the ball flies past, then the thrower receives a “bol." Having scored 4 "balls" in a row, the batter takes the first base.
When the ball flies over the sideline, the batter is counted as a “foul ball”. After that, all running players will return to their previous places. Also, the “foul ball” is read to the player as a “strike." If he had 2 strikes before this, then the foul ball does not count. If the third “foul ball” catches the server, the “strike” is counted and the batter goes out.
If a player knocks the ball out of the circle, this is called a “home run”. Then the batter, as well as all the runners, get the right to run around all the bases and earn points all. Home Run is one of the rarest and coveted batter achievements.
Nuances and "tricks" of the game
Each team goes to the ball in the order established by the coach. The first two batsmen are the fastest players (to occupy the base) or who have a good shot (or a good eye). The third and fourth are beaten by the most talented players with a great shot to help the first two players get into the “house”. Next, the players go in descending order.
On the last (9th place) is the server, since its main role is protection. The pitcher’s fight with the batter is a decisive factor in all of baseball. The ability to correctly and accurately serve the ball in such a way that the batter can’t get on it is honed for years.
But it’s not enough to have good throwing techniques, you still need to be able to compare the strengths and weaknesses of the enemy. For this, the server has to thoroughly study his rivals. He must clearly know which balls the batter will be able to beat off easily, and on which he will pierce. Sometimes the server makes special “bols” (gives the ball incorrectly) and “gives” the first base in order to “remove” the talented slugger, who is able to earn a “Home Run” with one hit.
The evolution of old baseball and bat games is difficult to trace. The French manuscript of 1344 contains an illustration depicting priests playing a certain game - presumably a la soule - much like baseball. Other old French games, such as thèque, la balle au bâton and la balle empoisonnée, also bear some resemblance to baseball. It is generally accepted that modern baseball is a North American development of the older English bast shoe, popular in the UK and Ireland.
American newspapers in the early 19th century mentioned games under the names "baseball" (English Base-Ball), "Base ball" or "Main ball" (English Bass-Ball, Base Ball), "base" (English Base), Goalball (English Goalball), "City ball" (English Town Ball). In 1829 she went to the USA “Boy’s own book” (English The Boy's Own Book), which is considered the first known printed mention of a game reminiscent of baseball.
For a long time, the author of baseball was considered Ebner Doubleday from the American town of Cooperstown. However, even the fact of a person living with such a surname in Cooperstown is being disputed. In 1845, New Yorker Alexander Cartwright developed baseball rules, which were soon adopted by all the city's baseball clubs. June 19, 1846 hosted the first match according to the rules of Cartwright. In 1869, a local team in Cincinnati Red Stockings became the first team to pay players money for participating in matches. And just two years later, the first professional baseball league in the United States and the world was created. By the beginning of the 20th century, most cities in the US east coast had their own professional baseball teams.
The baseball world championship has been held since 1938 among men and since 2004 among women. In September 1986, the IOC included baseball and softball in the Summer Olympics. On July 8, 2005, at the IOC’s 117th session in Singapore, baseball and softball were excluded from the list of Olympic sports, both because of insufficient popularity in most IOC member countries and because of disagreements between the IOC and the US Baseball League, which refused Reschedule your competition for the duration of the Olympic Games. As a result, baseball was last presented at the Beijing Olympics, but in 2020, baseball will again be included in the program of the Olympic Games.
In each game, two teams participate, which in turn play in attack and defense.
The goal of the game is to score more points / runs (English run) than the opposing team. The point is counted when the player of the attacking team runs in turn all the bases (30 × 30 cm square pads attached to the ground) located in the corners of a square with a side of 90 feet (27.4 meters).
Baseball is usually played with a ball. The top of the ball is covered with white leather and stitched with red stitches. The weight of the ball is not less than 5 and not more than 5.25 ounces (from 141.7 to 148.8 g), circumference from 9 to 9.25 inches (from 22.8 to 23.5 cm). In the game, the defense team has 9 people in the field at the same time. The corners of the game "square" are called (in order, counterclockwise): "house", "1st base", "2nd base" and "3rd base".
At the beginning of the game, one of the teams (home team) plays in defense. 9 players of the team playing in defense go on the field and try not to let the other team earn points. The guest team was the first to play the attack and try to score points. Points are earned this way: starting from home, each player of the attacking team tries to earn the right to run counterclockwise to the next base (that is, to the corner of the square) and touch the base, continuing to run to each next base and finally return to the house, earning at this point.
Before the player of the attacking team can start to run, the player of the defending team, called "Pitcher" (from the English pitch - pitch), rises in a designated place in the middle of the game square - on a pitcher’s hill. The remaining 8 players of the defending team are also on the field, each in their own position.
The player of the offensive team called striking or batter (Eng. batter), stands next to the house, holding a round bat in cross section, usually made of wood or aluminum. The batter waits for the pitcher to throw the ball toward the house. The pitcher throws the ball towards the house, and the batter tries to hit the ball with a bat. If the batter managed to hit the ball in the field, he must throw the bat and start to run towards 1st base. There are other ways to reach 1st base.
When the striker begins to run, he is called striking-running (English batter-runner). If the runner reaches the base, he is declared in safety (English safe) and becomes running (English runner), otherwise the judge announces out (eng. out). If a player is declared out, he must leave the field and stay on the bench (eng. Dugout).
There are many ways in which a defending team can put an attacking player in touch. For simplicity, the following are the five most popular methods:
- Strike out: The batter was unable to earn the right to run to first base, as the pitcher made three strikes in one series of innings.
- Force out: the attacker had to run to the base (according to the rules), but the defense player touched that base with the ball in his hand before he could do it.
- Ground out - one of the many options for force out: the batter hit the ball in the field, but the defense player picked up the ball and threw it to the player standing on the base before the batter managed to touch it.
- Fly out: The defending player caught a hit ball before the ball touched the ground.
- Tag out (salting): the defending player touched the running team with the ball with the ball of the attacking team in it when the runner was between the bases.
Each game is divided into periods - Innings (English inning), in each of which each team plays once in attack and in defense. Each time, when three players of the attacking team went out, the teams change places (thus, in each inning there are six outs - three for each team). Usually a game consists of 9 innings. In case of equal score at the end of the last inning, additional innings are assigned. A baseball game cannot end with a draw, additional innings are appointed until the winner is determined (although there are exceptions, for example, in Japan and South Korea).
RESPONSIBILITY OF THE ATTACK PLAYERS
Batter (batter) - a player who is near the "house" with a bat. He must skillfully spend his time staying in this role (on a bat) in order to reach at least first base, or enable runners at the bases to make a dash to the next base (more than one attack player cannot be on the same base at the same time), and best option: both together.
If he succeeds in inflicting an accurate hit on the ball, he throws a bat and tries to run around as many bases as possible. If this succeeds (the defense will not send him out), another player from the attacking team will arm himself with a bat, becoming a new batter.
Batter can stop at any of the bases. After he was sent out or reached the base, another batter enters the game and it all starts from the beginning.
When a batter manages to break the ball over the fence, then he and all his partners located at the bases can run unhindered to the “house”. Such a hit is called a “home run” and it thus brings the team from 1 to 4 points (depending on the number of people at the bases during the “home run”).
A good batter predicts the trajectory of the ball when it flies out of the hands of the pitcher, and predicts the flight, estimates the position of the players of the internal field in a matter of seconds, for which the ball reaches him.
Running - A former batter who either hit the ball served by the pitcher, or went to base 1 on base-on-ball, hit-by-pitch or catcher interference. His task is to run through all the bases (1 - 2 - 3 - the house), touching each of them in turn, and bring a point (touching the house).
The task of each player from the attacking team to hit the ball submitted by the pitcher one by one (being in the role of a batter) and, thanks to the successful action of the partners or mistakes of the opponents, move from base to base. If you manage to visit all bases and return to the “house”, then the attack team counts a point.
SETUP AND RESPONSIBILITY OF PROTECTIVE TEAM PLAYERS
Pitcher - the main player of the team stands in the center of the internal field on a small earthen embankment ("hill"). He begins the game, producing a serve. The pitcher’s task is to make life easier for his teammates, namely: to serve the ball so that the batter either couldn’t hit at all (there are many tricks to beat the batter, for example, a very strong serve, the ball is twisted, etc.), or that the shot it turned out to be unsuccessful (easy for the defenders to receive). However, the ball must fly over the “house” and not higher than the armpit and not lower than the batter’s knee, through the so-called “strike zone”), for which the referee carefully monitors.
If the pitcher managed to throw the ball in this way, and the batter did not hit him, or if the batter hit but did not hit the ball (in which case it does not matter where the ball was thrown), the strike is protected. The batter goes out after 3 strikes. However, if the ball does not fly in the zone and the batter does not deliver an inaccurate blow, the pitcher is protected by a “bol”. After 4 "bols" the batter automatically takes 1st base. Batter also has the right to take 1st base if the pitcher hits him with the ball.
The pitcher also helps protect all bases.
Catcher squatting behind the "house". It is his responsibility to catch the ball served by the pitcher, provided, of course, that the batter did not hit the ball. In addition, he protects the house, insures 1 and 3 bases.
He with his free hand (a trap is put on his other hand) quickly shows the pitcher what kind of serve - strong, moving or completely unexpected. The catcher’s finger, facing inward, outward, up, down, makes it clear how to throw the ball in relation to the base.
First base defenderTakes the batter hit by the ball between 1 and 2 bases, protects the first base, insures the house and 2 bases.
Second base defenderTakes a hit ball between 2 and 1 bases, protects the second base, insures 1 and 2 bases.
Third base defendertakes the batted ball between 3 and 2 bases, protects the third base, insures the house.
Short stop located between the bases depending on the situation on the field, usually between the first and second base. Он принимает отбитый бьющим мяч между 2 и 3 базами, защищает 2 базу, страхует 2 и 3 базы.
Три аутфилдера играют за пределами внутреннего поля. Они принимают пропущенный защитниками 2 и 3 баз мяч.
Игроки команды защиты, приняв отбитый мяч, как можно скорее посылают его партнерам, расположившимся возле баз, чтобы эти игроки смогли мячом коснуться (осалить) the attacking player, thereby preventing them from occupying the next base and taking this forward out of the game.
When the ball is hit by a batter, the defense can send it out in the following way:
- catch the ball on the fly
- run with the ball to first base before the batter gets there,
- to batter the batter with the ball held in the hand.
|The highlight of the game is the duel between the pitcher and the batter|
The pitcher often serves the ball with a displacement of the trajectory to the right or left, or serves so that the ball crosses the home base much higher or lower than expected, while varying the speed of the ball. For example, if a pitcher twice serves the ball at high speed, then the batter has the right to expect the next serve with a curved flight path. Instead, the pitcher changes tactics and sends the ball with less force, hoping that the batter will wave the bat earlier and miss the ball.
Three accurate, irresistible shots - and the batter from the attacking team is out, giving way to another player. If, on the contrary, the pitcher admits four incorrect innings in one series, then the batter gains the right to occupy the first base without a fight, and this game situation is called a “walk” or “base on the bolas”.
A ball fed into the strike zone and not hit by a bat is called "strike“, and the ball served outside the strike zone and not hit by the bat, the judge announces“ Bol. ”If the batter swings, but doesn’t hit the ball, it doesn’t matter whether the ball was in the strike zone or not, this is also considered a strike, as well as a ball bounced to the side outside the baseball court If there is already two strikes on the player’s account, the ball bounced off the court is not considered a “strike”, except when the player of the defending team manages to catch the ball on the fly. If the ball is not caught or falls to the ground beyond the side If the ball flies outside the strike zone, the referee, who is behind the catcher, makes a mistake and gives a “Bol.” After four such errors, the batter automatically gets the right to take first base. After each serve, the referee announces the number balls and strikes (say, “two bolas, one strike”) so that players can vary tactics. After three “strikes”, the striker is in touch (out of the game). He is also eliminated from the game in the following cases: if he succeeds in striking, but field defense players are able to catch the ball in the summer, if the ball touches the ground after the strike, but is caught and arrives at the base earlier than the runner himself.
The team that succeeds in nine wins innings (during each inning, opponents play attack and defense once) to complete a greater number of full dashes across the bases and thus score more points. There is no one in baseball. If by the end of the ninth inning the score is equal, then the tenth, eleventh inning, etc., will be assigned until some team comes forward. The time of the fight is not limited. However, it may happen that by the end of the seventh inning one of the teams will have an advantage of 10 points. In this case, the game stops and the victory is announced by “knockout” (a typical baseball score is 7: 4, but 1: 0 or, for example, 12: 2 is also not uncommon).
Ball- consists of several parts: inside is a small rubber ball wrapped with felt threads soaked in glue. Outside, it is all covered in leather. The ball is quite solid, the weight of the ball is about 150 g, diameter about 7 cm.
Bits - there are several types: wood and bits of various alloys. Bits vary in weight and diameter.
Trap - Each player has his own trap, which he catches the ball during the game. Traps come in various shapes, depending on what position the player is playing at.
The most interesting outfit at the catcher. It consists of: knee pads, bib, helmet mask and a special "thick" trap. Such ammunition protects him from accidental injuries. Traps are selected depending on which hand the player throws the ball. For example, if a player throws the ball with his right hand, then the trap is on his left hand.
Baseball, as many experts and experts in this game have noted, requires not only speed and strength, but also intelligence and quick wit. Although this game is a team game, the outcome of the competition depends on the actions of individual players. The course of the duel can change dramatically due to a single serve, one intercepted ball or a bad bat. Eight players behind the pitcher and eight players from the batsman’s team, who are waiting in line to pick up the bat, are just the background at the moment when the pitcher sends the ball at a speed of 150 km / h. The batter only has three tenths of a second to decide whether to hit or miss the ball. In other words, although baseball requires coordinated actions, nevertheless this game consists of individual actions of two or three players.
Breaks between innings give rest after rough experiences, they are pleasant and bring calm. There is an established tradition, known as the seventh-inning warm-up, when fans get out of their seats and stretch, and the teams change places at that time.
To judge baseball matches is not easier than playing, and maybe harder. Indeed, only in baseball does a judge have the right to take a break after controversial moments in order to check the rules, think a little and then announce his decision.
Some baseball terms
"Single"- a blow, as a result of which the batter managed to reach the first base
"Double"- a blow, as a result of which the batter managed to reach second base
"Triple"- a blow, as a result of which the batter managed to reach third base
"Hit"- any exact hit on the ball, allowing the batter to reach the base
"Foul“- a blow, after which the ball goes beyond the sideline. It is considered as a“ strike ”if the pitcher has less than 2 strikes.
"Strike out"- the batter goes out after 3 strikes
"Fly out"- the batter goes out after the defenders catch the ball on the fly
Ground out“- the batter goes out after the defenders deliver the ball to first base before he can reach it
"Wok"- batter takes 1st base after 4 balls
"Ran"- a point defending a team whose player has reached home
"Runner"- the attack player is at the base (since he no longer has a beat, he is no longer called a batter)
"Empire"- referee (in baseball there are 4 referees, one at each base and one at home)
"Know-hitter"- The pitcher throughout the game did not allow to make a single hit
"Perfect game"- The pitcher during the entire game did not allow any player to take 1st base (a rarity)
Other materials on this topic: