On June 20, 2018, Moscow schoolchildren will write an exam in literature. According to the assessment of the pedagogical community, this exam has long been recognized as one of the most difficult to prepare.
There are several reasons for this:
- On the exam, you need to write a total of five essays of various sizes. In this case, the entire exam is given 3 hours 55 minutes.
- It is checked not only the understanding of the main idea and the actual knowledge of the text (knowledge of the plot, author, main and secondary characters, conflicts, key to understanding episodes), but also the ability to compare the text with others on a similar topic or problem.
- The verification criteria were finalized this year, as a result of which the experts had the opportunity to lower the score for an insufficiently complete and deep understanding of the text. This, of course, complicates the already difficult procedure for students to pass the exam in literature and getting a high score in this subject.
Nevertheless, with successful preparation during the year, even in the last five days, you can manage to get on the bandwagon of the outgoing train, as they say.
Anastasia Ovcharova, creator of the online service for preparing for the Unified State Examination in Russian language and literature, told Letidor how to organize knowledge and what should be paid attention at the last moment.
So, a concentrate of useful recommendations from a tutor may look like this:
Scored 100 points for the literature exam in 2013:
Of course, I can say that I owe my high result, first of all, to my teacher: not a single written essay and not a single detailed retelling was in vain. But no matter what a wonderful teacher, one should not forget about self-training.
Firstly, all works contained in the codifier are required to be read. And even if such large-scale epics, like “War and Peace” or “Quiet Don”, do not fall into the test part, knowing their contents and problems will be very useful when completing tasks C2 and C4, because in them you can find examples for almost any topic. But to be honest, I didn’t re-read anything specifically for the exam, but only refreshed it in my memory with the help of the analyzes given on this site. I outlined the analyzes strictly on the same list, starting with the "Word ..." and ending with prose, poetry and dramaturgy of the second half of the twentieth century. For analysis, I chose such key points as the year of writing, the history of creation (if any), the plot (for fairly large prose works), composition, problems, genre, etc. The same procedure with poems. I didn’t memorize poems for the exam either, I hoped for baggage acquired during the years of study. In addition, the lack of time affected, because I began to prepare only two months before the exam, so I advise everyone who is going to take the literature not to delay, but to start preparing at least from the second half of the year, because the amount of information that you need to know is very large, especially if you feel that there are gaps.
Secondly, the theory is very important. All terms and concepts need to know and be able to distinguish. This site also helped in repeating the theory. Even subtleties, such as the difference between rhyme and rhyme or versification systems, were explained in plain language.
And thirdly, training with tests and essays. Here you can also find an extensive bank of test tasks and tasks of level C. Also for preparation I recommend the book “100 days before the exam. Express training. ”
I did not go to the tutor and in the last days before the exam I went to consult with my teacher. We examined the prose and poetry of the second half of the twentieth century, since it is almost not given in the school course.
The main thing is not to panic and believe in your strength, because if you really strive for the best result and are ready to work hard, your love of reading, and, as a result, of literature in general, together with high-quality systematic preparation, will surely bring you the desired 100 points.
Scored 100 points for the literature exam in 2012:
I read all the necessary literature, I read large works like “War and Peace” about a year or six months before the exam, not rushing to get everything right in my head, and I started repeating the little ones shortly before the exam, otherwise they are quickly forgotten. By the way, do not neglect poems and leave them for the last days, otherwise it will be easy to confuse something, for example, forget the author of the poem. For the tasks of Part C (C4 especially) she classified verses on various topics (patriotism, love, etc.), many of them are best known by heart, if not completely, then at least a few lines in order to include quotes from them in her compositions. And prose should be read carefully, paying attention even to the most insignificant characters, because they can be useful when comparing prose. Well, I solved the tests. I didn’t buy any special task books; I had enough tasks on the site. In general, a lot of things in the exam depend on luck, but you shouldn’t rely on it especially, but it’s better to prepare and read more, then any option will seem easy.
I prepared for the exam in literature myself, without a tutor. I didn’t do anything supernatural: I re-read all the program works that I forgot, and I re-read them very carefully, taught quotes, literary terms. In general, I prepared for part B mainly at the end of the 10th grade; in the 11th, I studied only part C, since it is much more complicated. I trained in writing C1-C5, but not too often, once a week, or even two. The main thing is not how much to prepare, but how :) I also learned all the criteria for evaluating essays and tried to follow each of them in order to lose as few points as possible. I admit, I did not expect at all that my work would be appreciated so highly. My composition was not unusual or super smart, I just wrote in essence, did not pour water, I kept composition, logic. But the main thing - it was interesting for me to write, read, teach, I love literature. I think this is the main reason for my success.
We, who have handed over and hand over, the literature was very lucky. Because literature is an object that cannot be memorized. I’ll even say more. This is an item that in no case should be crammed. Literature is called upon to develop our thought, and the novelty and individuality of thought is most valued in it. You can find on the Internet, in textbooks, in cheat sheets answers to all common questions about the content of classical Russian works. But not the fact that you will receive 100 points for these answers.
I’ve been preparing myself all last year at school. I didn’t hire any tutors; I started to solve tests a month before the exam. In fact, this year I did not particularly prepare.
But looking deeper, I was getting ready. True, in slightly different ways.
Literature, first of all, must be loved. To love with all my heart.
This is one of the few items that really has something to love with all my heart.
I have been instilled a love of books since childhood. I never read books without thinking. Even scenes of nature that I hate for me.
First tip: learn to read correctly
This means not just going over your eyes and not losing the thread of the plot. This means digesting each sentence, extracting from it something new for itself. Compare with your life, find analogues. Think with the thoughts of heroes, live inside a book.
I did not read hysterically the entire 10-11 grade all the necessary program.
I went through the whole program at school. And many thanks to my literature teachers, who undoubtedly helped me. Opened up topics that I myself would not have come to. For example, at the end of grade 11, we ran the Quiet Don, and at one of the lessons the teacher gave us a topic for writing 10 minutes before the end of the lesson on a half page. The theme was “The role of the image of the mother in the epic novel“ Quiet Don ”. I developed this topic pretty well and received praise.
On June 16, part of one of the three topics was: “The role of female images in the novel“ Quiet Don ”. It is clear that for me it was a support when writing From part ...
So, since we chewed the whole program, even not so, did not chew, but taught to chew at school, then at home I read literature at my discretion. In winter, I found an unusual zhor for foreign classics, and I mastered it. I repeat, no modern masters, only recognized classics.
I tested modern literature in the 10th grade, after which I wrote an article about the influence of modern literature on young people and got second place in the regional congress of young journalists “Silver Feather of the Province”.
By the way, studying foreign classics also helped me in writing C parts - I compared Natalya and Aksinho with Scarlett O’Hara from Gone with the Wind.
So,second advice: no need to stuff yourself with all the classics in a row. Read what you are interested in. Works on the codifier will supply you at school in full.
As I have already said, literature teaches us to analyze and it values the individuality of our thoughts.
But besides analysis when reading, it is necessary to analyze on paper. For this, we write essays in the lessons. However, we must constantly train so that this ability does not atrophy with us. I was very lazy to write essays. I always had the so-called "blank slate disease". And I found a new way for myself. Maybe not entirely new, but effective.
Tip Three: Start a blog or diary.
I did not do this on purpose. I had to pour out my thoughts and reasoning somewhere. And this became a kind of training. I reasoned, analyzed and came to new conclusions. One of my acquaintances does analyze works at all, and, believe me, comes to very interesting conclusions. On the Internet, you feel freer.
If it is interesting, here is my blog - luvlave.mmm-tasty.ru
Tip Four: Do not be afraid to speak out, experiment in the classroom.
Lessons are preparation for the battle itself. But this is not a fight. A deuce in a lesson is not a deuce in an exam. Try to think in class and be sure to listen. How many interesting things I learned from my classmates and teacher. So many points of view!
Do not be afraid to engage in discussions yourself. After all, as they say, only in disputes the truth is born. And do not be afraid to develop your thoughts on paper. You will always have time to use template thoughts, and you can write your own, in your own skin, so to speak, suffered in the essay. The teacher will check, and if the thought is practical, then we can safely use it in the exam, as in my case. If not, then you will not write this on the exam.
I can list the works that you should know in almost all details: War and Peace, Dead Souls, Woe from Wit, Fathers and Sons, Eugene Onegin, At the Bottom, Crime and punishment. "
Less detailed: "Quiet Don", "Oblomov", "Master and Margarita."
As for the lyrics, in the 11th grade we all rethought it: we were taught not only shorter, but what we liked more.
So,tip number five: Learn only those poems that appeal to you more.
They will not need to be specially memorized before exams; they themselves will be imprinted in your memory.
Also at the Olympics I came across a task: to compare the three poems “Monument”: Pushkin, Derzhavin and Vysotsky. It helped me a lot. Comparing poems on topics from different poets helps. Yet again. Analyze everything. Look through the lines and letters.
Tip Six: Read various journalistic articles about authors or the writings of your classmates. Also, in all collections for exam preparation there are examples of essays from different years on different topics. You will discover a lot for yourself, believe me.
And when reading various journalistic articles, you know, the editor’s or publisher’s preferences are usually printed before the work itself, you will already know the approved point of view on this or that work. The opinion of an adult literary critic will never spoil your opinion.
It is precisely in these very articles that the important parts of works, phrases from poems, which you can also quote in your essay, are usually quoted. So to say, on a plate with a blue border you are given material that can be used, and, if you also mention in the composition “as Pisarev said”, for example, then this is already a plus for you.
In January, my teacher gave me to read the book "The Resurrection of Mayakovsky" before the study of Mayakovsky. And that immediately made my opinion of him. After this book, I could freely tell the facts of his biography and already had my own formed opinion about him, which, as I was convinced, was very valuable.
By the way, phrases from Mayakovsky are easy to remember and therefore they can always be used in composition.
An important role is played by the share of arrogance. As my friend said: “pretend that you know everything about the work and about the writer himself, even if it’s not.”
And finally, just love literature, carefully work on it. And she will undoubtedly reciprocate you
You will surely succeed, once you have visited this site and are reading this article.
You will succeed! Let your muse not leave you!
How to prepare for the exam in literature from scratch?
Literature is based on knowledge of texts. If you are preparing for the exam in literature, you need at least two years. If you want to be in time for a year, you should have “read” all the main texts.
And at the same time, it’s important not only to “get acquainted with the plot”, but also to remember all the details and structure of the work.
For example, you need to know the answers to questions of this nature:
Is there an epigraph to Eugene Onegin?
Answer: There is, and to each chapter. There is also an epigraph to the entire work (and it must be remembered). We must also remember in which languages the epigraphs to the chapters of “Eugene Onegin” are given, how many chapters are in “Eugene Onegin” (answer: 8).
How many parts are in Oblomov?
Answer: Four! Like the seasons.
What are the parts of the “Hero of our time?”
Answering this question, the high school student recalls the chronological order of action and lists: “Taman”, “Bela”, “Princess Mary”, “Fatalist” ... They usually forget about “Maxim Maximovich”.
But actually the order of the chapters is completely different! First, a preface to the novel. Then - the first part, this is Bela and Maxim Maksimovich, then the introduction to Pechorin’s magazine, which says that Pechorin is dead and his notes can be printed, and finally, Taman. The second part consists of "Princess Mary" and "Fatalist."
Yes, Lermontov rearranged parts of his story, and this is world-class innovation, it is premodernism - although we don’t say such terms to schoolchildren. “The hero of our time” is a brilliant text and a brilliant ending. The “hero of our time” does not end with the death of Pechorin, but with a description of the conversation between Pechorin and Maxim Maksimych about predestination.
But usually the student does not see this, does not understand the logic of the novel, because he pays attention only to the plot, to the development of the action. And in preparing for the exam in literature for high scores, you need to know the structure of the work, and not just the plot. We must remember all the details, not just the main events. You need to be able to retell the text in detail, surprise with “little things”, answer all complex questions.
Further, we must remember and not confuse the names of the characters, the scene, the details of the biographies of the characters. Let's check ourselves:
What was the name of Bazarov?
Answer: Evgeny Vasilievich.
What was the name of Pechorin?
Answer: Grigory Alexandrovich.
What was the patronymic name of Tatyana Larin?
Answer: Tatyana Dmitrievna.
What was the name of the fortress, where the main events in the "Captain's daughter" took place?
Answer: The fortress was called Belogorskaya. Graduates write either “Belgorod”, then “Belozerskaya” and lose points. These are typical mistakes on the exam.
Where do Petrusha’s parents live in the same “Captain’s daughter”?
Answer: In a village in the Simbirsk province.
Which city is besieged?
We are preparing for the entrance exam in literature: a scheme for analyzing a work, techniques for quickly memorizing information, and typical mistakes by applicants.
Is it possible to independently prepare for the entrance exam in literature? There is no single answer to this question. Many university teachers are sure that only preparatory courses or classes with a tutor can give the necessary knowledge base. But there is an opposite point of view: it all depends on the applicant himself.
This opinion is shared by Natalia Shutaya, candidate of philological sciences, doctoral candidate at Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov, teacher at the Unicum Center at RUDN University.
- Natalya, why do applicants need to be prepared for an examination in literature?
- The form of the entrance test may change. For example, an oral literature exam is unexpectedly replaced with a single state literature exam. Applicants usually find out about this in the middle or at the end of the school year. You need to be prepared for such "experiments" in the field of education.
- What is easier to take - the exam or an oral examination in literature?
- In my opinion, a single state exam. The USE assignments are based on the school curriculum, so you are required to know basically the material that is included in the required minimum for the subject. Most questions involve choosing the only correct option. Questions on the oral examination in literature are more complicated, require additional knowledge.
- На что следует обратить особое внимание при подготовке к устному экзамену по литературе?
- Во-первых, старайтесь больше читать тексты художественных произведений. В них вы найдете ответы на все вопросы. Во-вторых, "золотой ключик", который позволит "открыть" идейно-художественное своеобразие любого произведения, – теория литературы. Here I need the help of a teacher. Memorization of definitions will not help to form the skills of analysis and interpretation of prose and poetic creations. But the teacher will teach you to use the "key". Thirdly, a detailed answer will require rhetorical skills - the ability to select, arrange and present material. And this also needs to be learned.
- What is the best way to allocate time for preparing for the literature exam?
- There are two ways. You can take the genre-clan principle as a basis - repeat the material in blocks: epic works, dramatic, lyrical. In this case, it will be possible to trace traditions, continuity and innovation in literature. By the way, the exam tests the ability to analyze the text from the point of view of genre-specificity.
The second way is traditional, historical and chronological. The combination of these two approaches will allow you to effectively prepare for the literature exam.
- What methods and techniques will help to better remember dates and names?
- Techniques of mnemonics, which are based on the associative principle, have long been well known. With their help it is easy to remember, for example, the years of Lermontov's life - 1814-1841 (inverted dates).
By the way, mnemonics allows you to deal with actual errors. So, a common mistake on the exam is to write the name of Raskolnikov through "a" - many write "Radion". This can be avoided if we recall the interpretation of the name of the hero: Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov - the birthplace of the Romanovs, that is, Russia is split.
- How many quotes do you need to know for each author?
- There is no such criterion in assessing the answer - the number of citations. The cited passages are not valued on their own (their knowledge only indicates a good memory of the applicant), but the so-called organic quotation - small phrases or phrases that reinforce your thought, make it more vivid and expressive.
Quotes must be known exactly, with all punctuation marks. I remember how in the program “What? Where? When?” connoisseurs lost by incorrectly quoting A.S. Pushkin: "The less a woman we love, the. She likes us!".
Try to continue the quote yourself, without which not a single essay on the novel “Eugene Onegin” can do: “But I am given to another.” Even Dostoevsky made a mistake in this place in the famous Pushkin speech. Therefore, in the printed version of speech, a footnote is always made: "Not quite an accurate quote."
- Suppose there is not enough time left for preparation. Can I reread individual works in brief?
- The lack of time is a serious problem, but still a slow and thoughtful re-reading, when you no longer need to follow the plot, but you can directly observe the text, will pay off a hundredfold. If this is not possible, you should reread at least the main episodes. Brief retelling is worthwhile only to check or recall something.
There are a number of popular science books that will help you “pick up” program works: for example, defeating L.N. Tolstoy will allow the amazing book of N. Dolinina "On the pages of" War and Peace. "
- What are the typical mistakes when preparing for the literature exam yourself?
- A lot of effort goes to waste - to search for ready-made recipes for which you can easily prepare for the exam, inability to single out the main thing, lack of faith in your strength or, on the contrary, an overestimated assessment of your knowledge (because at this age it is very difficult to adequately evaluate yourself), refusal from supposedly outdated, but tried and tested methods - taking notes, memorizing, repeating material.
Is it possible to prepare for the exam in literature from scratch in a year?
Yes, you can catch it in a year if you have very good time management. This really means that every day at least an hour should be devoted to this work. Literally set a timer. Honestly check what they wrote, according to the criteria. Show to an outside observer - for example, a school teacher or tutor.
At the first stage, we study the texts. On the second - we write the USE options and check according to all criteria.
This year, the Phoenix Publishing House published my book Literature. Author training course for the exam. ” In it, I talk in detail about preparing for the exam in literature from scratch.
Call us: 8 (800) 775-06-82 (free call in Russia) +7 (495) 984-09-27 (free call in Moscow)
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Literature exam. Prose.
During classes, try to adhere to the analysis scheme of the work:
- place of the writer in the literary process
- place of work in the writer's work
- subjects, problems of the work
- the main idea in which it is expressed:
- image system
- language (style features)
- the significance of the work for the further development of literature.
If you can characterize each prosaic work in this way, then you have a knowledge base on literature.
Every third question in the examination cards is related to the analysis of poems, so it is important to learn how to parse the text. The general analysis plan is as follows:
- date of writing and publication
- belonging to one or another literary direction
- genre form
- type of poetic speech (description, reflection, dialogue, appeal)
- the meaning of the name
- emotional coloring of feelings expressed in a poem
- basic visual and expressive means (comparison, metaphor, metonymy, epithets, allegory, symbol, hyperbole, litota). You can specify the features of poetic syntax (repetition, parallelism, inversion, gradation, anaphora, epiphora, rhetorical question), especially rhyming
- the main idea, which became clear during the analysis.