- Muscle pain
- Rashes on the skin of the palms
- Skin rashes
- Respiratory failure
- Blood pressure fluctuations
- Low blood pressure
- Loss of consciousness
- Renal failure
- Heart failure
- Stomach cramps
- Heart palpitations
Infectious toxic shock is a non-specific pathological condition caused by the influence of bacteria and toxins that they secrete. Such a process can be accompanied by various disorders - metabolic, neuroregulatory and hemodynamic. This condition of the human body is an emergency and requires immediate treatment. The disease can affect absolutely any person, regardless of gender and age group. In the international classification of diseases (ICD 10), toxic shock syndrome has its own code - A48.3.
The cause of this ailment is the severe course of infectious processes. Infectious toxic shock in children is often formed on the basis of pneumonia. The development of such a syndrome completely depends on the causative agent of this disease, the state of the human immune system, the presence or absence of drug therapy, and the intensity of the bacteria.
The characteristic symptoms of the disease are a combination of signs of acute circulatory failure and a massive inflammatory process. Often, external expression develops rather quickly, especially in the first few days of the progression of the underlying disease. The very first symptom is severe chills. A little later, increased sweating, intense headaches, cramps, episodes of loss of consciousness. In children, this syndrome manifests itself in a slightly different way - frequent vomiting, which has nothing to do with eating food, diarrhea, and a gradual increase in soreness.
Diagnosis of infectious toxic shock consists of the detection of a pathogen in the patient's blood tests. Treatment of the disease is based on the use of drugs and special solutions. Since this syndrome is a very serious condition, before the patient enters a medical facility, he needs first aid. The prognosis of toxic shock syndrome is relatively favorable and depends on timely diagnosis and effective treatment tactics. Nevertheless, the probability of death is forty percent.
The reasons for the progression of this condition is the combination of an acute infectious process and a weakened human immunity. Such a syndrome is a frequent complication of the following diseases:
Other non-specific factors for the development of toxic toxic shock in children and adults are:
- surgical intervention,
- any violation of the integrity of the skin,
- pathological labor,
- complicated abortive abortion,
- allergic reactions
- HIV or AIDS
- substance abuse.
Another reason for the occurrence of this condition is the use by women of hygienic tampons. This is due to the fact that during the use of such an item during menstruation, Staphylococcus aureus, which produces dangerous toxins, can enter the female body. Often, the disease affects girls and women aged fifteen to thirty years. Mortality in this case is sixteen percent. In addition, cases of the appearance of such a disorder due to the use of vaginal contraceptives have been recorded.
The pathogenesis of infectious toxic shock consists in the entry of a large number of toxic substances into the circulatory system. This process entails the release of biologically active substances, which leads to disruption of blood circulation.
There is a classification of toxic shock syndrome depending on the degree of its development. This separation is based on the severity of the symptoms. Thus, allocate:
- initial degree - at which blood pressure remains unchanged, but heart rate rises. It can reach one hundred and twenty beats per minute,
- moderate severity - characterized by the progression of symptoms from the cardiovascular system. It is accompanied by a decrease in systolic blood pressure and increased heart rate,
- severe degree - a significant drop in systolic tone (pressure reaches seventy millimeters of mercury). The shock index is increasing. Often there is a fever and a decrease in the volume of emitted urine,
- complicated stage - different development of irreversible changes in internal organs and tissues. The skin of the patient takes an earthy tint. A coma is often noted.
Depending on the pathogen, there are:
- streptococcal syndrome - occurs after labor, infection of wounds, cuts or burns of the skin, and is also a complication after infectious disorders, in particular pneumonia,
- staphylococcal toxic shock - often develops after surgery and the use of sanitary tampons,
- bacterial toxic shock - occurs due to blood poisoning and can complicate any stage of sepsis.
Symptoms of toxic shock are characterized by rapid manifestation and amplification. The main features are:
- decrease in blood pressure, heart rate while increasing,
- a sudden increase in body temperature, up to a fever,
- intense headaches
- bouts of vomiting that are not related to eating,
- stomach cramps
- severe muscle pain
- episodes of short-term loss of consciousness,
- tissue death - only in cases of infection due to a violation of the integrity of the skin.
In addition, there is a development of heart, respiratory and renal failure. A similar syndrome in young children is expressed by stronger intoxication signs and constant jumps in blood pressure and heart rate. Toxic shock syndrome from tampons is expressed by similar signs, to which the rash on the skin of the feet and palms joins.
Quite often, people take the above symptoms for a cold or infection, which is why they are in no hurry to seek help from specialists. Without timely diagnosis and treatment, a number of irreversible complications of toxic shock can develop:
- violation of blood circulation, which is why internal organs do not receive the proper amount of oxygen,
- acute respiratory failure - is formed due to severe lung damage, especially if the onset of the syndrome was triggered by pneumonia,
- blood clotting disorder and an increased likelihood of blood clots, which can cause heavy hemorrhages,
- renal failure or complete failure of the functioning of this body. In such cases, treatment will consist of lifelong dialysis or transplant surgery.
Untimely emergency care and improper therapy lead to the death of the patient within two days after the expression of the first symptoms.
Diagnostic measures for toxic shock syndrome are aimed at detecting the causative agent of the disease. Before performing laboratory and instrumental examinations of the patient, the doctor must carefully study the patient’s medical history, determine the intensity of the symptoms, and conduct an examination. If the use of tampons became the cause of this condition, then the examination by a gynecologist is mandatory for patients.
Other diagnostic techniques include:
- conducting general and biochemical blood tests is the main way to identify the pathogen,
- measuring the amount of urine emitted per day - with such an ailment, the volume of daily urine will be much less than in a healthy person,
- instrumental examinations, which include CT, MRI, ultrasound, ECG, etc. - aimed at determining the degree of damage to internal organs.
An experienced specialist can easily determine the toxic toxic shock by the appearance of the patient.
Before the implementation of therapy in a medical institution, it is necessary to provide the patient with emergency first aid. Such events consist of several stages, which include:
- rid the victim of tight and tight clothing,
- ensuring a horizontal position so that the head is slightly raised in relation to the entire body,
- put a heating pad under your feet,
- allow fresh air to flow.
These actions limit emergency care that is not performed by a specialist.
After transporting the patient to a medical facility, intensive treatment of toxic toxic shock with medication begins. Often, hormones, antibiotics, and glucocorticoids are used to actively kill bacteria. The use of medicines is individual in nature and depends on the causative agent of the disease.
If the infection occurred due to the use of tampons or vaginal contraceptives, then the treatment is to immediately remove them from the body. This may require curettage, and the cavity is treated with antiseptic drugs.
Preventive measures from toxic shock syndrome consist in observing several rules:
- timely elimination of diseases that can cause the development of such a condition. In most cases, in children and adults it’s pneumonia,
- always monitor the cleanliness of the skin, and in case of any violation of the integrity immediately treat the affected area with antiseptic substances,
- take breaks in the use of tampons during the course of menstruation. Alternate pads and tampons every two menstruation, as well as timely change such a hygiene product.
The prognosis of the disease will be favorable only if first aid is provided in a timely manner, the cause of this condition is identified, and medication is started.
Causes and Risk Factors
Most often, toxic toxic shock occurs against the background of advanced infectious processes. In most cases, pathogens are gram-negative microorganisms. Also, a pathological process can occur with fungal or viral damage to the body.
Factors that can provoke the development of toxic toxic shock:
- postoperative inflammatory processes,
- immunodeficiency conditions
- postpartum sepsis,
- wounds, burns,
- injecting drug addiction
- infectious diseases (both acute and chronic).
Stages of the disease
Depending on the severity of clinical manifestations, 3 stages of pathology are distinguished:
At the subcompensated and decompensated stages, the likelihood of death is high due to the malfunction of most internal organs.
The clinical picture of toxic shock is characterized by:
- high fever (up to 40-41 ° C),
- lowering blood pressure
- nausea, vomiting,
- severe headache
- diffuse rash
- hyperemia of the mucous membranes,
- renal failure
At the stage of subcompensation, body temperature normalizes, the skin turns pale, the pressure decreases even more. Inhibition is noted, shortness of breath appears.
In the stage of decompensation, the patient is unconscious or is in a precomatous state. The pulse is threadlike, shallow breathing. Convulsions, cyanosis of the skin can be observed.
Possible complications and consequences
Complications of toxic shock can be:
- cerebral edema,
- metabolic acidosis
- renal failure
- liver failure,
- disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome (DIC).
With timely adequate treatment, the prognosis is favorable. Disability usually recovers after 2-3 weeks from the start of treatment. At the subcompensated and decompensated stages, the likelihood of death is high due to the malfunction of most internal organs. With the development of DIC, there is a high mortality rate in patients.